Vine cultivation!

Vine cultivation is one of the most important crops in many countries of the world, and the processing as well as marketing of vine products are two of the most important activities of world’s agricultural production.

Planting a new vineyard is not a simple process. It should be the subject of a research which will designate the proper varieties suitable for the particular location, soil, water and weather conditions. The basic parameters that should be taken into account are as follows:

• Location
• Soil
• Field preparation
• Selection of subjects and their varieties
• Qualities of subjects and categorization
• Planting method
• Vineyard layout

Ideal soils for vine cultivation are the sandy and of moderate fertility. A necessary precondition for the rapid development of the root system is to ensure good soil drainage and proper supply of sufficient water to cover the water needs of plants. In addition, the pH of the soil should range between 6.5-7.5.

Vine is a plant that does not love neither the excessive cold nor the very hot, humid conditions. The best temperatures during the germination period are 12-18 °C, while at the blooming period the optimum temperature should be 20-22 °C. Temperatures from  start to finish of harvest should range between 18-22 °C.

Pruning is one of the most important stages of vine cultivation because it contributes to quantitative and qualitative production of the vineyard and balances its vegetation. Depending on the stage of vegetation the pruning is distinguished to winter or dry pruning and to summer or spring pruning.

The water is a regulating factor of vine’s temperature and protects it from heat. Particular attention should be paid by producers not to supply their vineyards with large amounts of water to a depth greater than 0.90 m, because the depth of vine’s active root system reaches 0.60-0.80 m. It is estimated that for 1kg of dry substance production by any vineyard, it will require about 500-700 lt of water.

Approximately 200-250 plants per 1,000 sq.m. are planted in vineyards. The cost of the initial planting is approximately $3,000 per 1,000 sq.m. and includes the vines, poles, irrigation system, protection net and the workers labor. The cost of cultivation for the first 3 years ranges between $200-$300 per 1,000 sq.m., but after the 3rd year the cost of cultivation increases and ranges between $600-$800 per 1,000 sq.m. The vineyard starts to yield from the 3rd year after its planting, while fully productive and mature plants are considered those in the 5th year of their life.
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